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Bradshaw Foundation Glossary Rock Art Terms Definitions
Bradshaw Foundation Glossary Rock Art Terms Definitions
Bradshaw Foundation Glossary Rock Art Terms Definitions
Bradshaw Foundation
Glossary | N
Terms & Definitions

Neanderthal
An extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from Pleistocene specimens found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia. First appeared in Europe as early as 600,000 to 350,000 years ago. The last traces of have been found in Gorham’s Cave on the remote south-facing coast of Gibraltar, dated 30,000 to 24,500 years ago. Named after the first excavation in the Neanderthal valley ['thal' - 'valley'] near Dusseldorf, Germany. Descendants of Homo erectus, the bone structure found in contemporaneous skeletons suggests that Neanderthals may not have been direct ancestors of modern people, but a separate hominoid branch that was replaced in Europe by modern people.
Neolithic
The New Stone Age, approximately 12,000 to 2500 years ago. The period of the Stone Age following the Mesolithic, characterized in Europe by polished stone tools, pottery and the evolution of food production. In northern Africa, the period that commenced between 12,000 and 5,000 years ago, and lasted into the time when iron was first smelted, about 2,500 years ago. Unlike the Palaeolithic, where more than one human species existed, only one human species - Homo sapiens - reached the Neolithic.
neuropsychological model
Explanatory model for the creation of rock art based on the idea that all humans have the same nervous system, resulting in the same or similar internally generated designs in persons undergoing a trance; based on the assumption that shamans routinely experienced trance and were the primary producers of rock art.
neuropsychology
Integrated scientific study of the human nervous system (neurology) and the study of the mind and behavior (psychology).
Niaux
he Cave of Niaux , located in the Ariege department of south-western France, is famous for its many prehistoric paintings of superior quality. The paintings are from the Magdelanian Period [18,500 to 10,500 years ago]. In the Salon Noir, the age of the charcoal drawings has been measured by carbon dating to approximately 14,000 years.

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